A uterine endometrial polyp is a growth of tissue on the inner lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Endometrial polyps develop when the uterine lining’s cells are overgrow. Females of all ages can develop endometrial polyps, although those in the peri- and postmenopausal stages are more likely to do so. Precancerous polyps are those that have the potential to develop into cancer but have not yet done so. Many women have uterine polyps that range in size from millimeters to inches. It can be found as small as a sesame seed or as large as a gooseberry. Abnormal uterine bleeding can be caused by an endometrial polyp, leading to infertility.
Unknown factors contribute to the development of endometrial polyps. Changes in hormone levels could be a significant factor. A woman’s oestrogen levels increase when she has endometrial polyps.
Endometrial polyps can occur as a result of the following risk factors.
- either peri- or postmenopausal women
- persons who have a documented history of hypertension in their medical history
- Being overweight when taking breast cancer drugs (taking tamoxifen).
Symptoms and Signs
Symptoms and indications of endometrial polyps include the following:
- Women suffering from irregular menstrual bleeding may experience varying lengths and heaviness of menses.
- Bleeding may occur in the intervals between periods.
- Menstrual bleeding that is unreasonably excessive
- After menopause, women may experience vaginal bleeding.
- A woman with an endometrial polyp may find it difficult to become pregnant.
How are polyps in the endometrium diagnosed?
An ultrasound of the transvaginal cavity is the first step in determining if a polyp is present in a woman’s body. A hysteroscopy is the only way to get a conclusive answer.
Depending on the patient’s size, they present ailments, age, and cancer risk. During a hysteroscopy, postmenopausal women with polyps must have them removed and sent for a biopsy to rule out the possibility of malignancy. Polyp removal may be necessary for young women experiencing severe bleeding or fertility issues. Polyps that are not causing any symptoms can be examined further.
Because polyps might affect fertility, they must be taken into consideration. A 23-35% rise in natural conception rates has been found following polyp removal, despite varying views on the impact of polyp size and location on fertility. According to various studies, endometrial polyps less than 2 centimetres in diameter have not affected the result of IVF treatment cycles.